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Monday 19th of November 2018
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Top 100 Biographies

01 Johann Gutenberg
c.1397-1468, German inventor and printer, long credited with the invention of a method of printing from movable type, including the use of metal molds and alloys, a special press, and oil-based inks: a method that, with refinements and increased mechanization, remained the principal means of printing until the late 20th century. 

02 Isaac Newton
1642-1727, English mathematician and natural philosopher (physicist), who is considered by many the greatest scientist that ever lived.



03 Martin Luther
1483-1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders.




04 Charles Darwin

1809-82, English naturalist, b. Shrewsbury; grandson of Erasmus Darwin and of Josiah Wedgwood . He firmly established the theory of organic evolution known as Darwinism .



05 William Shakespeare

1564-1616, English dramatist and poet, b. Stratford-on-Avon. He is considered the greatest playwright who ever lived.




06 Christopher Columbus

1451-1506, European explorer, b. Genoa, Italy. Widely believed to be the first European to sail across the Atlantic Ocean and successfully land on the American continent




07 Karl Marx

1818-83, German social philosopher, the chief theorist of modern socialism and communism. Early LifeMarx’s father, a lawyer, converted from Judaism to Lutheranism in 1824. Marx studied law at Bonn and Berlin, but became interested in philosophy and took a Ph.D. degree at Jena (1841).



08 Albert Einstein

1879-1955, American theoretical physicist, known for the formulation of the relativity theory, b. Ulm, Germany. He is recognized as one of the greatest physicists of all time.




09 Nicolas Copernicus

1473-1543, Polish astronomer. After studying astronomy at the Univ. of Kraków, he spent a number of years in Italy studying various subjects, including medicine and canon law.



10 Galileo Galilei
1564-1642, great Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist. By his persistent investigation of natural laws he laid foundations for modern experimental science, and by the construction of astronomical telescopes he greatly enlarged humanity’s vision and conception of the universe.


11 Leonardo Da Vinci

1452-1519, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist, b. near Vinci, a hill village in Tuscany. The versatility and creative power of Leonardo mark him as a supreme example of Renaissance genius.



12 Sigmund Freud
1856-1939, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. Born in Moravia, he lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881.




13 Louis Pasteur
1822-95, French chemist. His early research consisted of chemical studies of the tartrates, in which he discovered (1848) molecular dissymmetry. He then began work on fermentation, which had important results. His experiments with bacteria conclusively disproved (1862) the theory of spontaneous generation and led to the germ theory of infection. His work on wine, vinegar, and beer resulted in the development of the process of pasteurization .


14 Thomas Edison
1847-1931, American inventor, b. Milan, Ohio. A genius in the practical application of scientific principles, Edison was one of the greatest and most productive inventors of his time. In 1877 he invented the carbon telephone transmitter (see microphone ) for the Western Union Telegraph Company. His phonograph (patented 1878) was notable as the first successful instrument of its kind.


15 Thomas Jefferson
1743-1826, 3d President of the United States (1801-9), author of the Declaration of Independence, and apostle of agrarian democracy.




16 Adolf Hitler
1889-1945, founder and leader of National Socialism (Nazism), and German dictator, b. Braunau in Upper Austria.




17 Mahatma Gandhi
Educated in India and in London, he was admitted to the English bar in 1889 and practiced law unsuccessfully in India for two years. In 1893 he went to South Africa, where he was later joined by his wife and children. There he became a successful lawyer and leader of the Indian community and involved himself in the fight to end discrimination against the country’s Indian minority. In South Africa he read widely and his personal philosophy underwent significant changes. He abandoned (c.1905) Western ways and thereafter lived abstemiously (including celibacy); this became symbolized in his eschewal of material possessions and his dress of loincloth and shawl. While in South Africa he organized (1907) a campaign of civil disobedience expressed in nonviolent resistance to what he regarded as unjust laws.


18 John Locke
1632-1704, English philosopher, founder of British empiricism. Locke summed up the Enlightenment in his belief in the middle class and its right to freedom of conscience and right to property, in his faith in science, and in his confidence in the goodness of humanity. His influence upon philosophy and political theory has been incalculable.



19 Michelangelo
1475-1564, Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet, b. Caprese, Tuscany. Michelangelo showed mastery of the human figure in painting as well. His Doni Tondo (c.1504), a significant early work, shows both balance and energy; influence by Leonardo da Vinci is clear. The artist was recalled to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. At the rear of the chapel Michelangelo painted The Last Judgment (1534), considered by many to be his masterwork. The painting depicts Christ’s damnation of sinners and blessing of the virtuous, along with the resurrection of the dead and the portage of souls to hell by Charon.


20 Adam Smith
1723-90, Scottish economist, educated at Glasgow and Oxford. He became professor of moral philosophy at the Univ. of Glasgow in 1752, and while teaching there wrote his Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), which gave him the beginnings of an international reputation. He traveled on the Continent from 1764 to 1766 as tutor to the duke of Buccleuch and while in France met some of the physiocrats and began to write An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, finally published in 1776.


21 George Washington

1732-99, 1st President of the United States (1789-97), commander in chief of the Continental army in the American Revolution , called the Father of His Country.




22 Genghis Khan
1167?-1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy. After subjugating many tribes of Mongolia and establishing his capital at Karakorum, Temujin held (1206) a great meeting, the khuriltai, at which he accepted leadership of the Mongols and assumed his title.


23 Abraham Lincoln
1809-1865), 16th president of the United States (1861-1865) and one of the great leaders in American history. A humane, far-sighted statesman in his lifetime, he became a legend and a folk hero after his death. Lincoln rose from humble backwoods origins to become one of the great presidents of the United States. In his effort to preserve the Union during the Civil War, he assumed more power than any preceding president. If necessity made him almost a dictator, by fervent conviction he was always a democrat. A superb politician, he persuaded the people with reasoned word and thoughtful deed to look to him for leadership. He had a lasting influence on American political institutions, most importantly in setting the precedent of vigorous executive action in time of national emergency.


24 St. Thomas Aquinas

Sometimes called the Angelic Doctor and the Prince of Scholastics (1225-1274), Italian philosopher and theologian, whose works have made him the most important figure in Scholastic philosophy and one of the leading Roman Catholic theologians.




25 James Watt
(1736-1819), Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, renowned for his improvements of the steam engine. Watt was born on January 19, 1736, in Greenock, Scotland. He worked as a mathematical-instrument maker from the age of 19 and soon became interested in improving the steam engines, invented by the English engineers Thomas Savery and Thomas Newcomen, which were used at the time to pump water from mines.


26 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756-1791), Austrian composer, who is considered one of the most brilliant and versatile composers ever. He worked in all musical genres of his era, wrote inspired works in each genre, and produced an extraordinary number of compositions, especially considering his short life. By the time Mozart died at age 35, he had completed 41 symphonies, 27 piano concertos, 23 string quartets, 17 piano sonatas, 7 major operas, and numerous works for voice and other instruments.


27 Napolean Bonaparte
(1769-1821), emperor of the French, who consolidated and institutionalized many reforms of the French Revolution. One of the greatest military commanders of all time, he conquered the larger part of Europe and did much to modernize the nations he ruled.



28 Johann Sebastian Bach
(1685-1750), German organist and composer of the baroque era, one of the greatest and most productive geniuses in the history of Western music.




29 Henry Ford
(1863-1947), American industrialist, best known for his pioneering achievements in the automobile industry. Ford was born on a farm near Dearborn, Michigan, on July 30, 1863, and educated in district schools. He became a machinist’s apprentice in Detroit at the age of 16. From 1888 to 1899 he was a mechanical engineer, and later chief engineer, with the Edison Illuminating Company. In 1896, after experimenting for years in his leisure hours, he completed the construction of his first automobile, the Quadricycle. In 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company.


30 Ludwig Von Beethoven

(1770-1827), German composer, considered one of the greatest musicians of all time. Having begun his career as an outstanding improviser at the piano and composer of piano music, Beethoven went on to compose string quartets and other kinds of chamber music, songs, two masses, an opera, and nine symphonies. His Symphony No. 9 in D minor op. 125 (Choral, completed 1824), perhaps the most famous work of classical music in existence, culminates in a choral finale based on the poem “Ode to Joy” by German writer Friedrich von Schiller. Like his opera Fidelio, op. 72 (1805; revised 1806, 1814) and many other works, the Ninth Symphony depicts an initial struggle with adversity and concludes with an uplifting vision of freedom and social harmony.


31 >Watson & Crick

), Crick -British biophysicist, who helped determine the structure of DNA, a (1916- large molecule that stores an organism’s genetic information (see Nucleic Acids). Born in Northampton, England, he obtained a Ph.D. degree in physics at Caius College, University of Cambridge, and in 1949 took a position at Cambridge’s Laboratory of Molecular Biology. In the early 1950s Crick and the American biochemist James Dewey Watson, with the aid of X-ray diffraction images of large biological molecules made by the British biophysicist Maurice Wilkins, determined the three-dimensional structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Watson -), American biochemist and Nobel laureate, who helped to determine the (1928- structure of the nucleic acid known as DNA.


32 Rene Descartes

(1596-1650), French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician, sometimes called the father of modern philosophy.




33 Martin Luther King Jr.
(1929-1968), American clergyman and Nobel Prize winner, one of the principal leaders of the American civil rights movement and a prominent advocate of nonviolent protest. King’s challenges to segregation and racial discrimination in the 1950s and 1960s helped convince many white Americans to support the cause of civil rights in the United States. After his assassination in 1968, King became a symbol of protest in the struggle for racial justice.


34 Jean-Jacques Rousseau

(1712-1778), French philosopher, social and political theorist, musician, botanist, and one of the most eloquent writers of the Age of Enlightenment.




35 Vladimir Lenin
(1870-1924), Russian revolutionary leader and theorist, who presided over the first government of Soviet Russia and then that of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Lenin was the leader of the radical socialist Bolshevik Party (later renamed the Communist Party), which seized power in the October phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917. After the revolution, Lenin headed the new Soviet government that formed in Russia. He became the leader of the USSR upon its founding in 1922. Lenin held the highest post in the Soviet government until his death in 1924, when Joseph Stalin assumed power.


36 Alexander Fleming

(1881-1955), British bacteriologist and Nobel laureate, best known for his discovery of penicillin. Born near Darvel, Scotland, and educated at Saint Mary’s Hospital Medical School of the University of London, he served as professor of bacteriology at St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School from 1928 to 1948, when he became professor emeritus.



37 Voltaire
Voltaire assumed name of François Marie Arouet (1694-1778), French writer and philosopher, who was one of the leaders of the Enlightenment. Voltaire was born in Paris, November 21, 1694, the son of a notary. He was educated by the Jesuits at the College Louis-le-Grand.



38 Francis Bacon

(1561-1626), English philosopher and statesman, one of the pioneers of modern scientific thought.




39 Dante Alighieri

(1265-1321), Italian poet, and one of the supreme figures of world literature, who was admired for the depth of his spiritual vision and for the range of his intellectual accomplishment.



40 Wright Brothers

Orville Wright: (1871–1948), American aeronautical engineer famous for his role in the first controlled, powered flight in a heavier-than-air machine and for his participation in the design of the aircraft’s control system. Wright worked closely with his brother, Wilbur Wright, in designing and flying the Wright airplanes. Wilbur Wright: (1867-1912), American aeronautical engineer who worked with his brother, Orville Wright, to build and fly the first airplane.


41 Bill Gates

(1955- ), American business executive, who serves as chairman and chief software architect of Microsoft Corporation, the leading computer software company in the United States. Gates cofounded Microsoft in 1975 with high school friend Paul Allen. The company’s success made Gates one of the most influential figures in the computer industry and, eventually, one of the richest people in the world.


42 Gregor Mendel

(1822-1884), Austrian monk, whose experimental work became the basis of modern hereditary theory




43 Mao Zedong
(1893-1976), foremost Chinese Communist leader of the 20th century and the principal founder of the People’s Republic of China.



44 Alexander Graham Bell

(1847-1922), American inventor and teacher of the deaf, most famous for his invention of the telephone.




45 William the Conqueror
William I (of England), called The Conqueror (1027-1087), first Norman king of England (1066-1087), who has been called one of the first modern kings and is generally regarded as one of the outstanding figures in western European history.



46 Niccolo Machiavelli

(1469-1527), Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher, whose amoral, but influential writings on statecraft have turned his name into a synonym for cunning and duplicity.



47 Charles Babbage
(1792-1871), British mathematician and inventor, who designed and built mechanical computing machines on principles that anticipated the modern electronic computer. Babbage was born in Teignmouth, Devonshire, and was educated at the University of Cambridge. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1816 and was active in the founding of the Analytical, the Royal Astronomical, and the Statistical societies.


48 Mary Wollstonecraft

(1759-1797), English author and feminist, born probably in London. Soon after 1780 she left home to earn her living, running a school for two years with her sisters and subsequently serving for a year as a governess in Ireland



49 Mikhail Gorbachev
(1931- ), leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1985 to 1991, the last leader of that country and the key figure in the liberalization and subsequent disintegration of Soviet and Eastern European Communism. Gorbachev set out to reinvigorate the Soviet system but inadvertently destroyed it. His policies aimed at relaxing tensions with the West, particularly the United States, made a crucial contribution to the end of the Cold War, which had divided the world since the late 1940s.


50 Margaret Sanger

Her work among the poor in New York City convinced her of the widespread need for information concerning contraception, and she abandoned nursing to devote herself to the promotion of that objective. In 1914 she was indicted for circulating through the mails a magazine called The Woman Rebel, in which she attacked the legislative restrictions on distribution of contraceptive information known as the Comstock Law. Passed in 1873, this federal legislation made it a crime to import or distribute any device, medicine, or information designed to prevent conception or induce abortion, or to mention in print the names of sexually transmitted infections. Sanger won support from prominent community leaders; through their influence the case against her was dismissed in 1916. In the same year she established the first American birth-control clinic in Brooklyn, New York. Charged with “maintaining a public nuisance,” she was convicted and served thirty days in the Queens County Penitentiary, where she organized a school for fellow inmates. After her release, she won an appeal, opening the way for physicians to give birth-control advice in New York City. She then began publishing Birth Control Review, a monthly magazine that she edited until 1928. She founded the American Birth Control League and served (1921-1928) as its first president. In 1927 she organized the first World Population Conference. Sanger was honorary chairperson of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., which was formed from the American Birth Control League in 1942.

51 Edward Jenner

(1749-1823), British physician, who discovered the vaccine that is used against smallpox and laid the groundwork for the science of immunology.



52 Winston Churchill
(1874-1965), British politician and prime minister of the United Kingdom (1940-1945, 1951-1955), widely regarded as the greatest British leader of the 20th century. Churchill is celebrated for his leadership during World War II (1939-1945). His courage, decisiveness, political experience, and enormous vitality enabled him to lead his country through the war, one of the most desperate struggles in British history.


53 Marie Curie

(1867-1934), Polish-born French chemist who, with her husband Pierre Curie, was an early investigator of radioactivity. The Curies shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics with French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel for fundamental research on radioactivity. Marie Curie went on to study the chemistry and medical applications of radium. She was awarded the 1911 Nobel Prize in chemistry in recognition of her work in discovering radium and polonium and in isolating radium


54 Marco Polo

(1254-1324), Venetian traveler and author, whose account of his travels and experiences in China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.




55 Ferdinand Magellan
(1480?-1521), Portuguese-born Spanish explorer and navigator, leader of the first expedition to circumnavigate, or sail completely around, the world. He was born in northern Portugal.




56 Elizabeth Stanton
(1815-1902), American social reformer, who, along with Susan B. Anthony, led the struggle for woman suffrage. Elizabeth Cady was born on November 12, 1815, in Johnstown, New York, the fourth of six children. Although she never went to college, she studied subjects such as Greek, Latin, and mathematics. She became interested early in the temperance and antislavery movements and spent time at the house of an uncle who was an abolitionist.


57 Elvis Presley

(1935-1977), American singer and actor, one of the most popular and influential entertainers of the 20th century. Presley is renowned as an early pioneer of rock music, fusing the sounds of country music and rhythm-and-blues influences with what was then the new rock-and-roll style. His unprecedented, electrically charged performances also helped make Presley one of the first mass idols of American popular culture.


58 Joan of Arc

In French, Jeanne d’Arc (1412-1431), called the Maid of Orléans, national heroine and patron saint of France, who united the nation at a critical hour and decisively turned the Hundred Years’ War in France’s favor.




59 Immanuel Kant
(1724-1804), German philosopher, considered by many the most influential thinker of modern times.




60 Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882-1945), 32nd president of the United States (1933-1945). Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice.



61 Michael Faraday

(1791-1867), British physicist and chemist, best known for his discoveries of electromagnetic induction and of the laws of electrolysis.




62 Walt Disney
(1901-1966), American cartoon artist and producer of animated films. Disney was born in Chicago, Illinois. He left school at the age of 16, but later studied briefly at art schools in Chicago and in Kansas City, Missouri. In 1923 he began to produce animated motion pictures in Hollywood, California, in partnership with his brother Roy O. Disney.



63 Jane Austen
(1775-1817), English novelist, noted for her witty studies of early-19th-century English society. With meticulous detail, Austen portrayed the quiet, day-to-day life of members of the upper middle class. Her works combine romantic comedy with social satire and psychological insight.



64 Pablo Picasso
(1881-1973), Spanish painter, who is widely acknowledged to be the most important artist of the 20th century. A long-lived and highly prolific artist, he experimented with a wide range of styles and themes throughout his career. Among Picasso’s many contributions to the history of art, his most important include pioneering the modern art movement called cubism, inventing collage as an artistic technique, and developing assemblage in sculpture.


65 Werner Heisenberg

Theoretical physicist, born in Würzburg, SC Germany. He studied at Munich and Göttingen. After a brief period working with Max Born (1923) and Niels Bohr (1924-7), he became professor of physics at Leipzig (1927-41), director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin (1941-5), and director of the Max Planck Institute at Göttingen (and from 1958 at Munich). He was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize for Physics.



66 D.W. Griffith
(1875-1948), pioneering American motion-picture director, who established a new standard for motion-picture production. He is often called The Father of the Motion Picture.



67 Vladimir Zworykin
(1889-1982), American physicist and electronic engineer, known for his developmental work in television. Important contributions were made by Zworykin to both the transmission and the reception of television. He was largely responsible for the development, during the 1920s and ’30s, of the television camera and picture tube. He also directed the group that in 1939 successfully produced a powerful electron microscope.



68 Benjamin Franklin

(1706-1790), American printer, author, diplomat, philosopher, and scientist, whose many contributions to the cause of the American Revolution (1775-1783), and the newly formed federal government that followed, rank him among the country’s greatest statesmen.




69 William Harvey
(1578-1657), English physician, who discovered the circulation of the blood and the role of the heart in propelling it, thus refuting the theories of Galen and laying the foundation for modern physiology.



70 Pope Gregory Vll
(1073-85), the great representative of the temporal claims of the mediaeval papacy, born near Soana, NW Italy. He became a cardinal in 1049. As pope, he worked to change the secularized condition of the Church, which led to conflict with the German Emperor Henry IV, who declared Gregory deposed in a diet at Worms (1076), but then yielded to him after excommunication.



71 Harriet Tubman
(1820?-1913), an African American who fled slavery and then guided runaway slaves to freedom in the North for more than a decade before the American Civil War (1861-1865). During the war she served as a scout, spy, and nurse for the United States Army. In later years she continued to work for the rights of blacks and women.



72 Simon Bolivar
1783-1830), South American revolutionary, military leader, and politician known as the Liberator for his leading role in the wars of Spanish American Independence. More than anyone else, Bolívar was responsible for the independence of five countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.



73 Princess Diana
(1961-1997), Princess of Wales from 1981 to 1997. Diana was born Diana Frances Spencer in Sandringham, Norfolk, England. Her father, Edward Spencer, was heir to an earldom, and her mother was the daughter of the 4th Baron Fermoy.




74 Enrico Fermi
(1901-1954), Italian-born American physicist and Nobel Prize winner, who made important contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics. Fermi’s most well-known contribution was the demonstration of the first controlled atomic fission reaction.



75 Gregory Pincus
Endocrinologist, born in Woodbine, New Jersey, USA. In 1944 he co-founded the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, one of the first laboratories set up expressly to channel scientific discoveries directly into commercial development. He concentrated on studying hormones and other factors in mammalian reproduction and, with financial support brought in thanks to Margaret Sanger, he became one of the prime developers of an oral contraceptive pill (1951).


76 The Beatles 

British rock music group, which revolutionized popular music around the world in the 1960s with their stimulating songwriting and vibrant performances. Although they played together barely ten years, the Beatles have been recognized by many critics and social historians as the most popular and influential music group of the 20th century.



77 Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher and political theorist (see Political Theory), one of the first modern Western thinkers to provide a secular justification for the political state. The philosophy of Hobbes marked a departure in English philosophy from the religious emphasis of Scholasticism. His ideas represented a reaction against the decentralizing ideas of the Reformation (1517-1648), which, Hobbes contended, brought anarchy (see Anarchism).



78 Isabella
(1451-1504), queen of Castile, called la Católica (“the Catholic”), and a sponsor of the voyages of Christopher Columbus. She was the daughter of John II of Castile and León by his second wife, Isabella of Portugal. In 1469 Princess Isabella married Ferdinand of Aragón, known also as Ferdinand V, the Catholic. On the death of her brother, Henry IV, Isabella and Ferdinand jointly succeeded (1474) to the throne of Castile and León.



79 Joseph Stalin
(1879-1953), general secretary of the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1922 to 1953, the despotic ruler who more than any other individual molded the features that characterized the Soviet regime and shaped the direction of Europe after World War II ended in 1945.





80 Elizabeth I
(1533-1603), queen of England and Ireland (1558-1603), daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth was the longest-reigning English monarch in nearly two centuries and the first woman to successfully occupy the English throne. Called Glorianna and Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth enjoyed enormous popularity during her life and became an even greater legend after her death.



81 Nelson Mandela
(1918- ), South African activist, winner of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, and the first black president of South Africa (1994-1999).




82 Neils Bohr
(1885-1962), Danish physicist and Nobel laureate, who made basic contributions to nuclear physics and the understanding of atomic structure.




83 Peter The Great of Russia
(1672-1725), tsar and, later, emperor of Russia (1682-1725), who is linked with the Westernization of Russia and its rise as a great power.




84 Guglielmo Marconi
(1874-1937), Italian electrical engineer and Nobel laureate, known as the inventor of the first practical radio-signaling system.




85 Ronald Reagan
(1911- ), 40th president of the United States (1981-1989), who implemented policies that reversed trends toward greater government involvement in economic and social regulation. He also brought in a new style of presidential leadership, downgrading the role of the president as an administrator and increasing the importance of communication via national news media. He was the oldest person ever to serve as president.


86 James Joyce
(1882-1941), Irish author, whose writings feature revolutionary innovations in prose techniques. He was one of the foremost literary figures of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for his epic novel Ulysses (1922), which uses stream of consciousness, a literary technique that attempts to portray the natural and sometimes irrational flow of thoughts and sensations in a person’s mind.



87 Rachel Carson
(1907-1964), American marine biologist, author of widely read books on ecological themes. Born in Springdale, Pennsylvania, and educated at the former Pennsylvania College for Women and Johns Hopkins University, she taught zoology at the University of Maryland from 1931 to 1936. She was aquatic biologist at the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries and its successor, the Fish and Wildlife Service, from 1936 to 1952.



88 Robert Oppenheimer
(1904-1967), American physicist and government adviser, who directed the development of the first atomic bombs.




89 Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906), outstanding American reformer, who led the struggle to gain the vote for women. She devoted 50 years to overcoming the nation’s resistance to woman suffrage, but died before the 19th Amendment was finally ratified (August 18, 1920).



90 Louis Daguerre
(1787-1851), French painter, inventor of the daguerreotype. He first worked as a scene painter for the opera. After achieving success in this art, Daguerre began to paint extensive panoramas. In 1837 he perfected the daguerreotype. This method of photography, which used metal plates, was the earliest widely-practiced form of photography.


91 Steven Spielberg

(1946- )American motion-picture director, producer, and executive, who achieved great commercial success and is among the most popular filmmakers of the late 20th century.




92 Florence Nightingale
(1820-1910), British nurse, hospital reformer, and humanitarian. Nightingale founded the Nightingale School and Home for Nurses at Saint Thomas’s Hospital in London. The opening of this school marked the beginning of professional education in nursing.



93 Eleanor Roosevelt
(1884-1962), social activist, United States representative to the United Nations (1945-1953; 1961), and wife of 32nd U.S. president Franklin Delano Roosevelt.




94 Patient Zero
Term used to refer to the individual who first introduced the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a fatal transmissible disease of the immune system—into the United States.



95 Charlie Chaplin
(1889-1977), English motion-picture actor, director, producer, and composer, one of the most creative artists in film history, who first achieved worldwide fame through his performances in silent films. His full name was Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin.









96 Enrico Caruso
Tenor. Born on February 25, 1873, in Naples, Italy, Enrico Caruso was the eighteenth child of a poverty-ridden machinist. Idolized in every operatic center, the flamboyant Neapolitan was the subject of almost unprecedented publicity. At the peak of his career, his performance fees exceeded $500,000 annually. The earliest of his nearly 250 recordings dates from 1902, and his annual income from this source alone reached $115,000.

97 Jonas Salk

1914-1995), American physician and epidemiologist, who developed the first vaccine against poliomyelitis.





98 Louis Armstrong
(1901-1971), American jazz, cornet, and trumpet player, singer, bandleader, and popular entertainer. Armstrong overcame poverty, a lack of formal education, and racism to become one of the most innovative and influential musicians of the 20th century, and one of the most beloved entertainers in the world.








99 Vasco Da Gama
(1469?-1524), Portuguese explorer and navigator, who was the first European to reach India by the sea route.




100. Suleiman I
(1520-66). He added to his dominions by conquest Belgrade, Budapest, Rhodes, Tabriz, Baghdad, Aden, and Algiers. His fleets dominated the Mediterranean, though he failed to capture Malta. His system of laws regulating land tenure earned him the name Kanuni (‘law-giver’), and he was a great patron of arts and architecture.